- DIVERFLOW AT-200
(SURFACE ACTIVE PREPARATION) AQUEOUS PASTE bass on blend of surfactants, alkali salt and water glycolic pasting medium.
- DIVERFLOW AT-230
- DIVERFLOW AT-240
- DIVERFLOW AT-260
- DIVERFLOW AT-290
- DIVERFLOW AT-305
The terms used in the industry and define the origin of surface-active preparations.
The definition for a detergent is a cleaning agent. The main cleaning agent used in earlier days was soap, alkaliad acid and etc . This term means a compound formed from the reaction of a fatty acid with a base such as caustic soda. The more commonly used is the synthetic detergent (SYNDET) which is a formulation such as TIDE or FAB. The essential difference between the soaps and the newer synthetic detergents lies in the fact that the soap molecule occurs ready-made in nature. It consists of a long-chain fatty acid modified only to the extent that the acidic hydrogen is replaced by a sodium atom from caustic soda. The synthetic detergents are not derived directly from natural products but are tailor-made, or built up artificially, synthesized in the laboratory. These synthetic detergents are made from a wide variety of raw materials such as certain petroleum constituents, coal tar derivatives, compounds derived from cracking gases, chemically modified fatty acids, and a lot of others.
The components of a synthetic detergent can be classified in various categories: the surfactants, builders, ancillaries and protective additives etc.
The surface-active preparation are based on principal component of a synthetic detergent but is also assisted in its cleaning agent role by the builders used (sometimes called built detergents). Builders such as the phosphates, metasilicates, and carbonates aid in emulsifying soils and suspending dirt in aqueous solutions. The surface-active agents are compounds that have two groups present in the molecule: one being hydrophobic in nature and one being hydrophilic in nature. Here we should stop and explain that hydrophilic means water-liking and hydrophobic means water-hating or oil-liking. So when you have a surface-active agent with two groups present, you have a chemical compound that has surface-active properties or the ability to affect the interfacial relationship between two dissimilar substances such as oil and water.
the terms used in conjunction with these compounds, we must classify them into the three groups commonly known in industry: the anionics, cationics and nonionics and their blends are known as surface active preparation.
The anionic surface-active agent is the reaction product of an organic compound such as a high molecular weight acid or alcohol with an inorganic compound such as sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid, yielding a product wherein the organic part of the molecule, or the water-insoluble part of the molecule, has a negative charge and the water-soluble part of the molecule wherein the sodium ion has a positive charge. For example, soap is an anionic and has the following structure:
Also, the reaction product of a long-change alcohol and sulfuric acid, and thus neutralized with sodium hydroxide has the following structure:
The anionics have the advantage of being high and stable foaming agents; however, they do have the disadvantage of being sensitive to minerals and the presence of minerals in water (water hardness) or pH changes.
Cationics are formed in reactions where alkyl halides react with primary, secondary, or tertiary fatty amines. Here the water-insoluble part of the molecule has a positive charge and the water-soluble part of the molecule is negatively charged, thus giving it the name of a cationic surface-active agent.
Cationic surface-active agents reduce surface tension and are used as wetting agents in acid media. However, a disadvantage of a cationic surface-active agent is that they have no detergent action when formulated into an alkaline solution.
this is the group of surface-active agents we are most concerned with since it is the classification all of Texaco Chemical Company's surface-active agents fall into. Nonionic surface-active agents have a hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance wherein there is neither a negative nor a positive charge in either part of the molecule, thus giving it the nonionic terminology. These surface-active agents have the advantage that they are not affected by water hardness or pH changes as the anionic and cationic surfactants are, and in many cases it is an advantage that they are considered medium to low foaming agents. It is especially advantageous when a very low foaming surface-active agent is required. An example of the chemical structure of a nonionic surface-active agent is shown below in the reaction product of lauryl alcohol and ethylene oxide.
Types of Nonionics
Various alkylphenols are used as the hydrophobic portion of many surface-active agents. The alkylphenols most commonly used for the preparation of surface-active agents are the nonyloctyl-, dodecyl-, and dinonylphenol. In some cases, amylphenol is used as a hydrophobic group for surface-active agents as well as phenol itself. The main manufacturers of the nonylphenol ethoxylates at the present time are Texaco Chemical Company, Rohm & Haas, General Aniline & Film, Olin Mathieson, and Union Carbide. Rohm & Haas and General Aniline & Film both manufacture the ethoxylates of octylphenol. General Aniline & Film also manufactures the ethylene oxide adducts of dodecyl- and dinonylphenol. At the present time, Texaco Chemical Company does not manufacture ethylene oxide adducts of octyl-, dodecyl-, and dinonylphenol even though they do have the technology to do so. They do manufacture ethylene oxide adducts of phenol on a custom basis.
the three types of alcohols most commonly used for ethoxylation are primary alcohols produced by Shell Chemical Company, the Ethyl Corporation, and Conoco, along with primary alcohols from natural sources. The secondary alcohols that are ethoxylates are produced by Union Carbide Chemical Company. Branched chain alcohols are also ethoxylates but are being phased out due to their biologically hard character. The main producer of these alcohols is Enjay Chemical.
The primary and secondary alcohol ethoxylates have become very popular during the last decade simply because they are more biodegradable than the alkylphenol ethoxylates. Branched chain alcohol ethoxylates such as tridecyl alcohol ethylene oxide adducts are biologically hard and are used only where biodegradability is of minor concern and the excellent wetting properties of these products are required.
Nonionic Surface-Active Agents
The HLB value is the hydrophil/lipophilic (hydro-phobe) balance. This value then is an indication of the oil or water solubility of the product. The lower the HLB number the more oil soluble the product; and in turn the higher theHLB number the more water-soluble the product is. Below is a formula of how HLB values are calculated:
Quite frequently a customer will ask for the HLB number or value of a product which is their means of characterizing a particular product with respect to its oil or water solubility.
Cloud point is also a measure of the hydrophil/lipophil balance of a surface-active preparation. When a surfactant can have its cloud point run in an aqueous solution, it is therefore a water soluble surface active agent; whereas, when a surfactant must have its cloud point run in an aqueous/solvent mixture, it is either water dispersible or oil soluble in character. Therefore our product surface active preparation in water paste is more workable and exhibits extraordinary properties in removal of all types of dirt, particles and associated spots etc.
It is balanced formulation based on blend of surfactants, alkali salt and water glycolic pasting medium.